中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (1): 120-126.

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经权、常变的智慧——中庸之道的哲学根据

余治平   

  • 收稿日期:2007-08-08 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-01-15 发布日期:2008-01-15

The Wisdom of Principle and Exception: the Philosophical Foundation of the Golden Mean

YU Zhiping   

  1. (Institute of Philosophy, Shanghai Academy of Social Science, Shanghai, 200235)
  • Received:2007-08-08 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-01-15 Published:2008-01-15

摘要:

经权、常变是儒家哲学的重要范畴。孔子思想中既有对“经”的坚守,也十分重视“权”,甚至还使“权”获得超越于“经”的意义。惟有“权”才是人世生活中最难把握的方法,是道德伦理实践的最高境地。“权”是一门艺术,是融入族群日常生活的共同智慧。经有经道,权有权道。权虽是变,但有定则可寻,即董仲舒所说的“可以然之域”。能否合理适当地行权,关键在于能否把握中庸之道。中庸之道不可能在认识论上被掌握,只能在每一次当下的亲自操作过程中才能获得。由经权、常变而中庸的思想理路,打造出中国人无执的哲学气质。儒家、道家都反对坚执,主张无执。对规则的遵守必须以有执为条件。所以,中国社会之法治局面的形成,仍缺乏足够的精神基础。在市场经济与后现代社会里,“经”已失去了养尊处优的地位,不再具有绝对的权威性和严肃性。

关键词: 经, 权, 常, 变, 中庸

Abstract:

In China, Jing, Chang (principle) and Quan, Bian (exception) are not only philosophical conceptions, but also a kind of basic life style and the common wisdom; moreover, they are the kind of ideal or artistic ambit pursued by most Chinese. To get to the golden mean from the proper relationship between Jing, Chang (principle) and Quan, Bian (exception) is an important pursuit in the history of Chinese philosophy. And this is the key to the formation of characteristics of Chinese philosophy and culture as well. Since Confucianism has become the dominant ideology, the necessary result of the spiritual feature of XingQing metaphysics infiltrating entirely into Chinese thinking is that Quan, Bian (exception) is challenging, or breaking through Jing, Chang (principle). Thus, the Chinese character and behavioral mode of paying more attention to both principle and flexibility has taken shape. Meanwhile, it has theoretically sustained “human governing” rather than “governing by law” in Chinese society.

Key words: Jing, Chang (principle), Quan, Bian (exception), Golden Mean

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