中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (1): 65-78.

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秦始皇陶俑:墓俑或功臣肖像?

郭静云   

  • 收稿日期:2007-09-20 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-01-15 发布日期:2008-01-15

Terracotta Warriors of Emperor Qin Shihuang: Tomb Sculptures or Portraits of Outstanding Military and Civic Officials?

GUO Jingyun   

  1. (Department of History, Sun Yatsen University, Guangzhou, 510275)
  • Received:2007-09-20 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-01-15 Published:2008-01-15

摘要:

文章用出土文物与文献记载的互补考证,探讨秦代时历史思想的需求以及“相术”的经验联合所衍生的肖像艺术。短期的秦帝国在许多方面造成中国文化的突破,肖像艺术的形成也是其中之一。秦始皇帝的陶俑,继承了墓俑传统,但同时用墓俑的“旧瓶”装肖像的“新酒”成为统一天下的英雄“功臣肖像”。在郦山附近所陪葬的秦始皇的武官、文官陶俑,各有个体的面貌。此一造形具体人物的目的有二:让此一帮助始皇统一天下的可靠禁军继续保护他的永生;使参与统一天下而保卫统一者的英雄永垂不朽,以纪念统一天下之大事。不过此种“纪念”并不是给民众看的“纪念馆”,而是用以祭告秦国先王神人。这两种目的,同样兼含丧葬信仰以及历史思想两种需求。由此中国文明便产生了肖像艺术。

关键词: 秦汉史, 秦始皇兵马俑, 肖像, 陪殉, 墓主像, 相术

Abstract:

The paper delineates origins of portrait art in the Qin Dynasty on the basis of comparative analysis of archeology findings and literature sources. Historical context of Qin conditioned demand for portraits and widespread image divination practices prompted the portrait art to reach a high level. The short Qin Dynasty brought up many important innovations in Chinese culture, including the portrait art. The Qin terracotta sculpture was a result of replacement of human sacrifices at funerals (cointerment) with clay models. However, it also revolutionized the tradition, producing portraits of famous officials and unifiers of the country. All images of military and civic officials were made with unique individual characteristics. The purposes might be that the emperor wished that the people who had helped him unify the whole country and protected him, would continue to protect him in the eternal afterlife and that he wanted to create a memorial to his deeds, and make its participants famous. However, this memorial was not supposed to be available for mortals——it was created as a report to the Qin emperors ancestors. Both purposes were religious in essence, and conformed to funeral practices, but they also reflected newarising thinking in the Qin period. Hence Chinese culture saw the portrait art in the Qin Dynasty.

Key words: history of Qin and Han empires, terracotta warriors of Emperor Qin Shihuang, portraits, human sacrifices (cointerment), physiognomy

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