中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 42-53.

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尹湾汉简《神乌傅(赋)》考论

许云和   

  • 收稿日期:2008-01-16 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-05-15 发布日期:2008-05-15

An Analysis on “ShenWu Fu” Excavated from the Han Tombs in Yinwan

XU Yunhe   

  1. (Chinese Ancient Literature Instituts, Sun Yatsen University, Guangzhou, 510275)
  • Received:2008-01-16 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-05-15 Published:2008-05-15

摘要:

《神乌傅》第20简上的双行小字,并非作者或传写者的题款,它只不过是赠物者的一个签名。《神乌傅》的主题,仅就神乌故事本身立论是不够的,应该充分重视作者自己的意见,即《传》中所宣扬的弃利避害、全身远祸。结合当时的思想背景来看,这一主题的形成与武、昭之际文学、贤良上仁义、疾权利的思想行为不无关系。神乌所负载的文化含义,论者多以仁、孝求之,然而赋的主要故事情节是乌与它鸟相斗而致死。乌与它鸟相斗致死这一现象,在汉代人的观念中却不是视为吉祥,而是视为黑祥,统治者及五行家出于强烈的政治目的往往把它与当时所发生的重大的反叛事件牵合在一起,因此,此赋所具有的政治倾向性是不言而喻的。至于《神乌傅》的形式,不能简单地因其写了一个乌的故事就把它看作民间俗赋或民间故事赋,从该赋在各个方面显现的特征来看,它还是属于汉代典型的文人赋的形式。可以初步判定《神乌傅》的具体写作时间当在汉昭帝元凤元年稍后。

关键词: 《神乌傅》, 签名, 《传》, 黑祥, 文人赋, 元凤元年

Abstract:

This paper points out that the two lines of smaller characters written on the 20th bamboo slips of “ShenWu Fu” was not written by the author, but a signature of a donator. The viewpoints on the theme, if only based on its story, would be untenable. The authors views, i.e., abandoning profits and keeping far from disaster for safety, should be taken into consideration. The plot of this story, the Wus fighting to death with another bird, inauspiciously manifested this Fus strong trend of politics. This political trend in the story was a representation of a great event of rebellion. With regard to the style, it was a typical Fu by literati in the Han Dynasty rather than a folktale Fu. It could also be concluded that this Fu was written after the first year of Fengyuan time, Emperor of Zhao.

Key words: &ldquo, Shen Wu Fu&rdquo, signature, Biography, inauspicious manifestation, literati Fu, the first year of Fengyuan time

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