中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (3): 69-82.

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新词与故物:清季以来所谓“私塾”问题的再认识

左松涛   

  • 收稿日期:2008-03-12 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-05-15 发布日期:2008-05-15

ReEvaluation of the Study on the OldStyle Private School since the Late Qing Dynasty

ZUO Songtao   

  1. (Department of History, Wuhan University, Wuhan, 430072)
  • Received:2008-03-12 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-05-15 Published:2008-05-15

摘要:

今人习称“私塾”一词,原本在中国古典文献极少出现。直至1905年科举停废前后,出于称谓排除在西式新学堂系统之外本土学塾的需要,新知识精英才普遍使用这一新词,且不为一般民众熟悉。用“私塾”这样的后起概念,来指称清代乃至历代所有各类型的学塾,捉襟见肘,漏洞百出。更应注意的是,“私塾”用语背后,蕴含有近代中西学战之后所形成的知识权力关系。由于趋新尊西的知识立场,“私塾”常带贬义,〖JP2〗暗指为教学内容和教学形式的守旧落伍。但以新/旧、传统/现代、正规/非正规、文明/野蛮等二元对立方式叙述近代教育历史,不仅扭曲事实,对既往教育制度产生认识偏弊,亦遮蔽过去教育中诸多可为当下借鉴、继承之特性。这就提示,在追寻史实真相的道路上,学者应对可能会产生知识陷阱的近代新词予以特别警惕。

关键词: 私塾, 近代新词, 旧有学塾, 二元对立, 知识与制度体系转型

Abstract:

The term “the oldstyle private school”(sishu,私塾), always called by people today,almost never appeared in classical literature. Till the Imperial Examination System was abolished in 1905, the neologist began to use the term “sishu” to differentiate the traditional education institute from the modern school, but the neologism was not known very well by common people. Therefore, it is improper to call all kinds of the traditional schools in history as “the oldstyle private school”. Additionally, the term indicated the system of knowledge power which came into being as a result of the competition between the traditional culture and the western culture in modern China. Due to the preference to new things, the term always used as a derogatory one which suggested that the educational contents and forms were outdated. So the description of the educational history in modern China is inappropriate by the paradigm of the new vs. the old, the traditional vs. the modern and the normal vs. the abnormal. Or else, it will not only distort the fact, resulting in making false impression on the educational institution in history, but also shade the trait of the traditional education which can be introduced into education of the present age. It can be concluded that in the process of pursuit of the truth, scholars should be cautious to use neologisms formed in modern China.

Key words: the oldstyle private school (sishu), neologism, the dual antithesis, the transformation of knowledge and institutional systems

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