中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (4): 112-123.

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《论语》中的勇:历史建构与现代启示

陈 立 胜   

  • 收稿日期:2008-05-18 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-07-15 发布日期:2008-07-15
  • 通讯作者: 陈 立 胜

The View of “Yong” in The Analects: Its Historical Construction and Modern Revelation

CHEN Lisheng   

  1. (Department of Philosophy, Sun Yatsen University, Guangzhou, 510275)
  • Received:2008-05-18 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-07-15 Published:2008-07-15
  • Contact: CHEN Lisheng

摘要:

《论语》中“勇”字具有几种不同含义,集中表现在“子路之勇”论说上面。《孟子》、《荀子》中勇之类型学均致力于勇者人格的塑造,其“大勇”、“上勇”之“大丈夫”、“士君子”之德性既有内圣挺立之一面,亦兼有外王之内涵,而此勇者之原型游弋于“曾子之勇”与“文王之勇”之间。降至宋明理学,“勇”之论说生面别开,“颜子大勇”的论说成为各种“勇”论的主调,仁、智、勇三达德的排序亦成为“成德”与“入德”关系问题而得到专题讨论,勇德内敛为一种内在德性生命的品质。至近代,面临列强觊觎之危局,以梁启超为代表的士人重塑“勇”传统,“孔子大勇”定下了《中国武士道》一书的基调。胡适之《说儒》实属重谈“梁调”。现代儒家的义理建构中,“勇”几乎不占有任何地位,作为“三达德”中的一目,勇德几近形同虚设。在“英雄社会”、“圣贤社会”不再的“当今时代”之中,还有无必要谈论“勇”以及如何谈论“勇”?他山之石,或可给予我们启发。

关键词: 勇, 子路之勇, 曾子之勇, 颜子大勇, 孔子大勇

Abstract:

There are different meanings of the term “Yong” (courage/boldness) in The Analects, and especially Zilus courage (Zilu zhi Yong) is centered on, which were developed into a typology of “Yong” by Mencious and Xunzi. In neoConfucianism, Yanzis great courage (Yanzi Da Yong) became the dominant viewpoint of Yong. Liang Qichao and Hu Shi reconstructed the Confucian spirit of “Yong” by the discourse on Confucius great courage (Kongzi Da Yong). The main characteristic of classical view of “Yong” is selforiented, whereas the modern view is nationoriented.

Key words: “Yong&rdquo, (courage /boldness);Zilu zhi Yong;Yanzi Da Yong;Kongzi Da Yong

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