中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (4): 146-153.

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美国食品监管改革及其对中国的启示

刘 亚 平   

  • 收稿日期:2008-05-01 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-07-15 发布日期:2008-07-15
  • 通讯作者: 刘 亚 平

Food Regulation Reform of US in the Progressive Era and Its Implications for China

LIU Yaping   

  1. (School of Government, Center for Public Administration, Sun Yatsen University, Guangzhou, 510275)
  • Received:2008-05-01 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-07-15 Published:2008-07-15
  • Contact: LIU Yaping

摘要:

比较和理解美国如何建立起适应现代工业社会需要的食品监管体系,可以帮助我们更好地认识当代中国政府在食品监管领域所面临的问题和思考未来的发展。美国进步时代的改革是一个利益冲突和妥协的过程,社会就食品安全最终达成共识:以联邦政府来承担食品监管职责,并设立由专家组成的独立管制机构来实施监管。在当前中国,争议的焦点在于:食品安全应当由政府还是企业承担责任?应当由哪级政府来管理?交由哪个部门来管理?文章认为,由地方政府承担食品监管总责任的制度安排源于我国食品生产业的基本情况和向市场转型的基本环境,但由于没有一个在食品安全领域做出过特别贡献的部门,致使监管职责的分配上一直存在较大的争议,未来的发展取决于哪个部门能够获取足够的政治支持。

关键词: 食品安全, 食品监管, 进步时代, 改革

Abstract:

Food safety is one of the pivotal challenges confronting the Chinese government. Comparison and understanding of the US experience in the progressive era in building food regulation can enhance the understanding of Chinas predicament. Reform in progressive era is a process of interest conflict and compromises. With the endeavor of a group of progressists, the whole society arrives at a consensus on three key disputes: federal government should assume the responsibility of food regulation, via an independent regulatory agency consisting of experts. The disputes in contemporary China are somewhat different: should the government or the business firms be responsible for food safety? Which level of government and which agency should assume the responsibility? The system that the manufacturing and processing firms should claim the main responsibility and local governments assumes the regulatory responsibility is the result of the basic situation of Chinese current food industry and fits well with the idea of market economy. However, due to the lack of an agency which contributes disproportionately to food safety, there have been great disputes as to which agency should assume the responsibility. The future development depends on which agency can secure enough political support.

Key words: food safety, regulation, progressive era, reform

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