中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (4): 90-99.

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福音、医学与政治:近代中国的麻风救治

刘家峰   

  • 收稿日期:2008-05-31 修回日期:1900-01-01 出版日期:2008-07-15 发布日期:2008-07-15
  • 通讯作者: 刘家峰

Gospel, Medicine and Politics: the Leper Relief in Modern China

LIU Jiafeng   

  1. (Institute of Chinese Modern History, Central China Normal University, Wuhan, 430079)
  • Received:2008-05-31 Revised:1900-01-01 Online:2008-07-15 Published:2008-07-15
  • Contact: LIU Jiafeng

摘要:

明清以来中国各地就有隔离、救济麻风病人的传统,但为什么近代中国的麻风救治事业是传教士而不是中国人担当主要角色呢?文章从福音(传教)、医学和政治三个方面做了分析。传教士在中国的麻风救治,从一开始就有两个明确的目标:救人与救灵。中国传统中对待麻风病人也有消极的一面:即非科学的理解、冷漠、歧视甚至是残暴,导致传统慈善精神在麻风救治领域的缺失。医学方面,传教士医生能追踪到当时最先进的药品和治疗理念,而中国传统医学在处理麻风病方面无能为力。政治方面,中国基督徒精英认识到麻风救治中的主权问题,组织了中华麻疯救济会,并极力推动国家承担救治麻风的责任,但国民政府在内忧外患、政经交困的局势下根本无心也无力去谋划这一事业。

关键词: 近代中国, 传教士, 麻风病, 中华麻疯救济会

Abstract:

Chinese had a long tradition of leprosaria since the Ming and Qing dynasties. However, why did missionaries play an important role in eradicating leprosy in modern China? This paper tries to answer this question from three perspectives: gospel, medicine and politics. The missionaries in China had dual aims in the leprosy relief from the very beginning, i.e. relieving lepers physical sufferings and Christianizing them. Chinese also had a negative tradition in the treatment on lepers: nonscientific explanations, apathy, discrimination, even inhumanity, which finally brought the lack of traditional Chinese philanthropic spirit on lepers. Missionaries had the advantage to master the most advanced medicine and medical principles, while Chinese traditional medicine could not provide any prescription. Chinese Christian intellectuals realized the sovereignty and organized the Chinese Mission to Lepers. They also made efforts to push the government to assume the responsibility of leprosy relief. Unfortunately, the Nanjing Government had neither the wish nor the capability to promote this movement.

Key words: modern China, missionaries, leprosy, the Chinese Mission to Leper

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