中山大学学报社会科学版 ›› 2008, Vol. 48 ›› Issue (6): 1-19.

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中西文化差异与文艺摹仿论的普遍意义

顾 明 栋   

  1. 美国德州大学人文艺术学院
  • 收稿日期:2008-08-17 修回日期:1900-09-01 出版日期:2008-11-15 发布日期:2008-11-15
  • 通讯作者: 顾 明 栋

Chinese and Western Cultural Differences and the Universal -Significance of Mimetic Theory in Literature and Art

GU Mingdong   

  1. (University of Texas at Dallas, USA)
  • Received:2008-08-17 Revised:1900-09-01 Online:2008-11-15 Published:2008-11-15
  • Contact: GU Mingdong

摘要:

摹仿说是西方诗学最根本的思想之一。摹仿论构成了西方美学的主流。然而,在中西诗学的对比研究中存在一种被广为接受的观点,即摹仿论是西方诗学传统特有的文化创新。在此学术共识的基础上产生了一种基本的二分法,其结果是衍生了一系列的中西二元对立:西方艺术具有隐喻性、象征性和先验性特性,而中国艺术具有转喻性、字面本意性和内在性特性。文章批判地审视有关摹仿论的对比研究,列举出反对上述被普遍接受观点的种种理由,并从认识论、本体论和方法论等角度考察中国诗学传统中摹仿说与西方传统相关的各个方面,重新确立模仿是跨文化的人类本能,因此艺术摹仿论也是跨越文化传统的普遍性观念;还考察了艺术理念如何在中西表现系统中得以形成、中国诗学摹仿论与西方诗学摹仿论的差异以及对该差异的理解会给西方和非西方文学的对比研究带来哪些启发诸问题。

关键词: 摹仿论, 中西诗学, 文化差异, 二元对立范式, 摹仿的普遍性 

Abstract:

Mimesis is one of the most fundamental ideas in Western poetics. Mimetic theories constitute a mainstream in Western aesthetics. In comparative studies of Chinese and Western poetics, however, there exists widely accepted opinion that mimetic theory is a cultural invention unique to the Western tradition. And on this scholarly consensus has been constructed a fundamental dichotomy ramifying into a series of binary oppositions: the metaphorical, figurative, transcendental nature of Western art, as against the metonymic, literal, immanentist nature of Chinese art. Critically reviewing the comparative studies of mimetic theory, this article argues against the accepted opinion. By examining various ontological and epistemological aspects of mimesis in the Chinese tradition in relation to the West, this article re-establishes imitation as a transcultural human instinct and mimetic theory in art as a universal idea across cultural traditions. It also examines how the artistic ideal is conceived of in Chinese and Western representation, how Chinese mimetic theory differs from its Western counterpart, and what implications an understanding of the differences may have for the comparative study of Western and non-Western literatures.

Key words: mimetic theory, Chinese and Western poetics, cultural differences, dichotomy of binary oppositions, universality of mimesis

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