中山大学学报自然科学版 ›› 2019, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (1): 1-11.doi: 10.13471/j.cnki.acta.snus.2019.01.001

• 论文 •    下一篇

1961-2014年淮河流域极端气温时空特征及区域响应

孙玉燕1,2,孙鹏1,2,3,姚蕊2,4,张强1,5,王友贞3   

  1. 1.北京师范大学环境演变与自然灾害教育部重点实验室,北京100875;
    2.安徽师范大学地理与旅游学院,安徽 芜湖241002;
    3.安徽省水利部淮河水利委员会水利科学研究院∥水利水资源安徽省重点实验室,安徽 蚌埠233000;
    4.江淮流域地表过去与区域响应安徽省重点实验室,安徽 芜湖241002; 
    5.北京师范大学地理科学学部,北京100875
  • 收稿日期:2017-11-10 出版日期:2019-01-25 发布日期:2019-01-25
  • 通讯作者: 孙鹏(1986年生),男;研究方向:水文循环过程及灾害效应;E-mail:sun68peng@163.com

Variations and regional responses of extreme temperature events in the Huaihe River basin in China during 1961-2014

SUN Yuyan1,2,SUN Peng1,2,3 ,YAO Rui2,4,ZHANG Qiang1,5 ,WANG Youzhen3   

  1. 1.Laboratory of Environment Change and Natural Disaster, College of Resources Science and Technology,〖JP〗 Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China;
    2.College of Geography and Tourism, Anhui Normal University, Wuhu 241002, China; 
    3.Anhui & Huaihe River Institute of Hydraulic Research∥Key laboratory of Water Conservancy and Water Resources of Anhui Province, Bengbu 233000, China; 
    4.Key Laboratory of Earth Surface Processes and Regional Response in the YangtzeHuaihe River Basin, Wuhu 241002, China; 
    5. Faculty of Geographical Science, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875, China
  • Received:2017-11-10 Online:2019-01-25 Published:2019-01-25

摘要:

基于淮河流域气温日数据和趋势性、相关性等方法,全面分析淮河流域极端气温时空变化特征和流域气温变化对全球气候变化的区域响应。研究表明:① 最低气温极高值与最低气温极低值呈大范围显著上升趋势,最大增幅为0.4 ℃/10a及1.3 ℃/10a。东南部城市化高引起的热岛效应是极端暖指数在淮河流域东南部呈显著上升趋势的主要原因;② 极端冷指数呈下降趋势,除IDO和CID,淮河流域绝大部分地区其他极端冷指数呈显著下降趋势,气候变暖延长了淮河流域作物生长季;③ 淮河流域极端冷指数变化幅度大于极端暖指数,夜指数大于昼指数;东部地区极端气温指数变化幅度和显著性检验通过率均大于西部地区,且东南部的极端暖指数增幅是最大的;突变发生时间上,极端冷指数早于极端暖指数约10a;多数极端气温指数变化趋势与经纬度、海拔显著相关。

关键词: 极端气温指数, SEN趋势估计法, Mann-Kendall法, 区域响应, 淮河流域

Abstract:

Based on daily temperature (maximum, minimum and average) data of 153 meteorological stations, the spatial and temporal characteristics of extreme temperature events in the Huaihe River basin from 1961 to 2014 are analyzed from the perspective of trend and correlation, using statistical methods to calculate 26 extreme temperature indices. The regional response of climate change in the basin is further discussed by comparing with other regional temperature changes. The results are as follows: (1) The maximum Tmax and minimum Tminrise by a wide range of significant trend, the largest increase was 0.4 ℃ / 10a and 1.3 ℃ / 10a. Warm night days, summer days, hot wave spell duration indicator, and others in the Huaihe River basin as a whole are on the rise. The warm evenings with hot night index showed a trend of wide range increases significantly, with an increase of 6.3 d/10a and 7.1 d/10a. (2) Cold days, cold nights, frost days, icing days, cold spell duration indicator, cold wave spell duration indicator and frost spell duration indicator have significantly decreased by -2.3, -6.8, -10.0, -2.5, -10.0, -7.3, -4.3 d/10a, respectively. (3) The diurnal temperature range in the Huaihe River basin is decreasing in general. The growing season length shows statistically significant increasing trends at rates of 7.6 d/10a, while the temperature index in the growing season length is slightly lower. (4) The extreme temperature indices of the Huaihe River basin have obvious differences in variation range, spatial distribution, time of mutation occurrence and correlation. In terms of change amplitude, the extreme cold index is greater than the extreme warmth index, and the night index is greater than the day index. On spatial distribution, the variation amplitude of these indices and significance test pass rate are greater in eastern region than in western region, and the increase of extreme warm indices in the southeast of the Huaihe River basin is far greater than in other areas. And extreme cold index mutations occur earlier than warm about 10 a. The most extreme temperature indices are correlated with the longitude, latitude and altitude. Particularly, the trend of main extreme temperature indices of the Huaihe River basin is consistent with regional and global scales.

Key words: extreme temperature indices, sen slope method, Mann-Kendall test, regional responses, Huaihe River Basin

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