中山大学学报自然科学版 ›› 2019, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (4): 1-13.doi: 10.13471/j.cnki.acta.snus.2019.04.001

• 论文 •    下一篇

敦煌旱峡古玉矿遗址工具石锤及其岩石材料来源分析

杨炯1,2,4,5,张跃峰1,4,5,丘志力1,4,5,陈国科3,王辉3,张钰岩1,4,郑昕雨1,4   

  1. 1.中山大学地球科学与工程学院;广东 广州510275;
    2.泰山学院旅游学院,山东 泰安,271021;
    3.甘肃省文物考古研究所,甘肃 兰州730000;
    4.广东省地质过程与矿产资源重点实验室,广东 广州510275;
    5.广东省地球动力作用与地质灾害重点实验室,广东 广州 510275
  • 收稿日期:2019-03-24 出版日期:2019-07-25 发布日期:2019-07-25
  • 通讯作者: 丘志力(1963年生),男;研究方向:宝玉石成矿与重大地质作用过程、古玉文明演化;E-mail:qiuzhili@mail.sysu.edu.cn

Archaeomineralogy and provenance study of the stone hammers from ancient Hanxia nephrite mining site, Dunhuang

YANG Jiong1,2,4,5,ZHANG Yuefeng1,4,5,QIU Zhili1,4,5,CHEN Guoke3,WANG Hui3,ZHANG Yuyan1,4,ZHENG Xinyu1,4   

  1. 1. School of Earth Sciences and Engineering, Sun Yatsen University, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    2. School of Tourism, Taishan University, Taian 271021, China;
    3.Gansu Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Lanzhou 730000, China;
    4. Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Geological Processes and Mineral Resource Survey, Guangzhou 510275, China;
    5. Provincial Key Laboratory of Geodynamic and Geological Hazards, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2019-03-24 Online:2019-07-25 Published:2019-07-25

摘要:

石器工具是石器时代生产力和生产方式的重要标志。敦煌旱峡古玉矿遗址是中国目前发现最古老的玉(闪石玉)矿遗址,石器工具的矿物岩石材料学特征对于揭示当地采矿(玉)工业面貌和人群活动特点有明显的学术价值。利用偏光显微镜、XRF和ICP-MS等进行的测试显示,敦煌旱峡古玉矿遗址9件典型工具石锤的原岩分别为闪长玢岩、花岗闪长玢岩、辉绿岩、玄武岩和英安岩等岩浆岩。从宏观特征、显微结构、主微量元素特征及构造环境4个方面将石锤与附近区域出露的岩石进行了对比分析,发现它们的地质地球化学特征与以玉矿遗址为中心直径100 km范围内出露的岩浆岩一致,分别形成于火山弧及板内环境。结果表明,除部分卵石石锤外,敦煌旱峡古玉矿遗址石锤主要是就地/近取材于敦煌地块三危山玉矿及附近(以遗址为中心直径100 km范围内)的岩浆岩,特别是附近较为致密坚硬的次火山岩和火山岩。根据石锤的野外分布特点及其与其它采矿遗址石锤的比较,认为目前所研究的石锤更多为选矿(玉)工具,石锤的形制特点所反映的人类行为和社会系统力量的“技术表现”对探索采矿人群的意义有待深入探讨。

关键词: 石锤, 旱峡古玉矿遗址, 地球化学, 石料来源, 敦煌

Abstract:

The stone tool is a key symbol of productivity and production mode in the Stone Age. Ancient Hanxia nephrite mining site in Dunhuang was archeologically recognized as the oldest jade mining site discovered in China, its mining tools, i.e. stone hammers, and their rock materials including the petrological and geochemical characteristics may provide important information for revealing their material sources and the productivity at that time. In this paper, nine typical stone hammers were selected for petrological and geochemical analysis using polarizing microscope, XRF, and ICP-MS. The results showed that the stone hammers were made of diabase, basalt, dacite, granodiorite porphyrite and diorite porphyrite rocks. These rocks were characterized by the petrogeochemistry of igneous rocks formed within intraplate or volcanic arc environment, and are consistent with local igneous rocks within tens of kilometers of the site in Dunhuang area. Further comparison of the stone hammers and relative local igneous rocks in macroscopic features, microtexture, main and trace elements, and tectonic environment can infer that, except for some pebble hammers, the stone hammers were probably processed from local igneous rocks, especially those hard & dense-textured volcanic or subvolcanic rocks at Sanwei mountain nephrite mine or neighborly close-by, maybe 100 km around. Based on the scattered position of the stone hammers in the mining site and by contrasting with those stone hammers from other sites, we think the stone hammers were used as separation tools at Hanxia nephrite mining site, but more detailed research needs to do to find out their significance and value in understanding mining personnel from the stone hammer-reflected human behaviour and technical gestures in shape & structure in social system.

Key words: stone hammer, ancient Hanxia nephrite mining site, geochemistry, sources of , rock materials, Dunhuang

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