中山大学学报自然科学版 ›› 2019, Vol. 58 ›› Issue (5): 104-113.doi: 10.13471/j.cnki.acta.snus.2019.05.013

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

气候变暖与土地利用变化对东北黑土耕作区步甲群落的影响

马艳龙1,付雪1,2,叶乐夫1,王佳佳1,赵月影1,王雪1,朱可心1,李林蓉1,顾万荣1,赵奎军1   

  1. 1.东北农业大学农学院,黑龙江 哈尔滨150030;
    2.黑龙江大学农业资源与环境学院, 黑龙江 哈尔滨 150080
  • 收稿日期:2018-08-21 出版日期:2019-09-25 发布日期:2019-09-25
  • 通讯作者: 叶乐夫(1975年生),男;研究方向:昆虫生态学;E-mail: yelefuneau@foxmail.com

Influences of climate warming and land use changes on the Carabid beetle assemblage in black-soil cropping area of Northeast China

MA Yanlong1, FU Xue1,2, YE Lefu1, WANG Jiajia1, ZHAO Yueying1, WANG Xue1, ZHU Kexin1,LI Linrong1, GU Wanrong1, ZHAO Kuijun1     

  1. 1.College of Agriculture of Northeast Agricultural University, Harbin 150030,China;
    2.College of Agricultural Resources and Environment, Harbin 150080, China
  • Received:2018-08-21 Online:2019-09-25 Published:2019-09-25

摘要:

步甲作为地表重要的捕食性天敌类群,研究其群落结构对环境扰动和气候变暖的响应特点,对于预测害虫发生趋势意义重大。本研究取样点选在中国东北三江平原的寒地黑土区纬度相差1°左右的3个市的林地和玉米地,利用陷阱法取样,并对步甲和直翅目等昆虫类群进行鉴定和计数,计算多样性指数,研究了纬度和土地类型对不同指标的影响,分析了步甲与其他相关节肢动物类群的丰度关系。共采集步甲1 527头,鉴定为36种。① 其中淡鞘婪步甲、蠋步甲、直角通缘步甲为该地区的优势种类。② 对步甲的种类数和总数进行相关性分析表明:步甲的种类数和个体数量显著正相关。③ 不同的纬度、土地利用类型下,步甲的群落个体数量有显著差异:3个纬度地区的步甲个体数为长春<哈尔滨<绥化,林地和玉米田的步甲个体数相比杨树林<玉米田。而不同的纬度、土地利用类型下步甲的种类数差异不显著。④ 蠋步甲与直角通缘步甲和相似松步甲活动密度显著正相关,且3种体型较大的步甲都与直翅目昆虫或特定种类的直翅目昆虫数量呈显著正相关。⑤ 选择数量最多的7种步甲进行方差分析,可以看出,淡鞘婪步甲在纬度较高的绥化农田的数量要显著多于林地;蠋步甲在哈尔滨农田的数量显著多于林地,也多于长春农田;相似松步甲在绥化农田数量显著多于长春农田。纬度较高地区步甲总数均多于纬度较低地区,纬度最低的长春农田步甲总体的数量要显著少于绥化农田与哈尔滨农田,绥化的农田和林地步甲的总数差异显著;长春农田步甲种类数显著少于其他两个纬度样点的农田,农田和林地种类数也无显著差异;哈尔滨农田步甲多样性指数要显著高于长春,哈尔滨农田步甲多样性指数均高于林地。不同纬度与土地利用类型之间没有明显的交互作用。总体而言,在作物生长季节,低纬度地区步甲的活动密度要低于高纬度地区,农田步甲的活动密度要多于林地步甲的数量。由此推测: 随着气候变暖,步甲数量有减少的趋势,而土地利用类型由林地转变为农田,步甲数量有增多的趋势。另外,推测蠋步甲与直角通缘步甲及相似松步甲在取食范围上有重合之处。

关键词: 纬度差异, 土地利用变化, 气候变暖, 步甲, 活动密度

Abstract:

As general ground dwelling predators of many agricultural pests, Carabid beetle community responds to the environmental disturbance and climate warming, and thus is intensively related with occurrence of arthropod pests. With changes of climate and land use, the community of ground beetles in the black soil cropping area of the Sanjiang Plain is bound to be affected. In this study, a total of 1 527 carabid beetle adult individuals belonging to 36 species were collected from18 sampling sites located in poplar woodlands and corn fields at different latitude. Pitfall trapping was used to investigate the species richness and individual abundance of Carabid family. The diversity index of ground beetles was also calculated. The effects of latitude difference and land types on these indicators were studied. Relationship of abundance between ground beetle species and other related arthropod groups was also analyzed. Among the samples, Dolichus halensisDolichus halensis and Pterostichus gebleri  were found to be the dominant species in this area. Correlation analysis between the species richness and individuals of ground beetles indicated that species richness and individuals of ground beetles were significantly positive correlated. Under different latitudes and land use types, there were significant differences in the number of individual for specific carabid beetle species: the number of individuals in the three latitudes was Changchun<Harbin<Suihua; individual number in the corn fields is higher than that from poplars woodland. However, differences of ground beetle species richness at different latitudes and land use types were not significant. Analysis of the correlation between various ground beetles individuals showed that: Dolichus halensisPterostichus gebleri and Synuchus congruous had a significantly positive correlation; and these species had a significant correlation with Orthoptera. Analysis of variance for the most abundant 7 species ground beetles showed that the number of Harpalus pallidipennis in different land types was significantly different; Dolichus halensis varied significantly at different latitudes and land types, Synuchus congruous is significantly different in these two land types, the total number of ground beetles is significantly different at different latitudes and different land types. There was no significant interaction between latitudes and land use types. Overall, the activity-density of carabid beetles at lower latitude was less than that at higher latitudes, and the number of ground beetles in corn fields is bigger than that in woodland. As the climate warming, the number of ground beetles will decrease; and as the type of land use changing from woodland to farmland, the number of ground beetles will increase. Moreover, these big body size carabid beetle species (Dolichus halensisPterostichus gebleri andSynuchus congruous) might have some overlap in prey spectrum.

Key words: latitude difference, land use change, climate warming, carabid beetle, activity-density

中图分类号: