Table of Content

    25 September 2012, Volume 51 Issue 5
    Effect of Compatibilization on Crystallization and Melting Behavior of Recycled Poly(ethylene terephthalate) and Polypropylene Blends
    WANG Chunguang;LIN Jingxin;ZHANG Zishou;MAI Kancheng
    2012, 51(5):  1-6. 
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    The recycled poly (ethylene terephthalate)/polypropylene (r-PET/PP) blends were prepared with different compatibilizers. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to investigate the effect of compatibilizers on crystallization and melting behavior of r-PET, the effect of r-PET on crystallization and melting behavior of PP and the effect of compatibilizers on crystallization and melting behavior of r-PET/PP blends. The results indicated that the crystallization temperatures of PP increased with increasing r-PET contents and the crystallization temperatures of r-PET decreased with increasing PP contents. Addition of compatibilizers significantly decreased the crystallization temperatures of neat r-PET and r-PET component in the blends. However , the different compatibilizers had no influence on the crystallization and melting behavior of blends and the crystallization behavior of PP in the blends depend on the kinds of compatibilizers.
    Studies on the Antibacterial Composition Diversity of #br# Introduced Melaleuca Alternifolia Oil
    ZHONG Zhensheng,;YUAN Yuquan;FAN Lifei
    2012, 51(5):  7-13. 
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    Three melaleuca alternifolia tea tree oil from Guangxi, Jiangxi and Guangdong province, they are introduced from Australia, were separately into different components by fractional distillation ,then make sure the main chemical composition by GC/MS. By means of antibiotic experiment with colibacillus and staphylococcus aureus, through contrast research the antimicrobial activity of the different fraction. Results indicated that the chemical components of the three kinds of tea tree oil were in great diversity. The characteristic composition terpine -4-ol accounted from 0.78%~43.59%, while the noncharacteristic composition 1,8cineole accounted from 2.14%~72.49%. The three kinds of tea tree oil were in great diversity,but they all have strong antimicrobial activity to the Staphylococcus aureus and the colibacillus, the active constituent of the three kinds of tea tree oil were 1,8cineole. While the main component content,such as terpinen-4-ol,γ-Terpinen,α-Terpinen,-p--Cymene.et,have no significant correlation with antibiotic activity.
    Numerical Simulation of Hydrodynamics and Sediment#br# Transport in Tidal Pearl River of Guangzhou
    LI Tong;LI Shiyu
    2012, 51(5):  14-20. 
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    Based on EFDC (Environmental Fluid Dynamic Code) model, a three dimensional numerical hydrodynamic and sediment transport model in Pearl River network of Guangzhou (PRGZ), was developed. The result indicated that the model was able to simulate hydrodynamics and sediment transport characteristics with fairly good accuracy verified by typical flood scenario case in July 1999 and dry scenario case in February 2001. The sediment transport result showed that Pingzhou to HouHangdao were the major transportation channel for suspended sediment during flood season. Erosion and deposition simulation also showed that PRGZ tended to deposition in flood season with Nanhandao and Lijiaoshuidao as the major deposition area. In the dry season, PRGZ tended to erosion, which usually happened in Shabeihai, Qianhangdao upper section and Xinzao rivernet. Besides, the entire rivernet showed a slow deposition rate, approximately at a speed of 2.0 cm/a.
    Electrochemical Preparation and Magnetic Properties Studies of Ce-Fe-Co Alloy in DMF
    WANG Jianchao;WANG Shuhai;YE Guang; ZHAI Bo; LIU Ying; HU Bo
    2012, 51(5):  21-25. 
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    Various Ce-Fe-Co alloys were prepared in DMF. Electroreduction behaviors of Ce (Ⅲ),Fe (Ⅱ) and Co (Ⅱ) on Cu electrodes were studied using electrochemical workstation. Their chemical composition, structure and property were analyzed by EDX, SEM, XRD and VSM analyses. The results demonstrated that (1) Ce (Ⅲ)was not reduced to deposit on the surface of electrode, but deposited by deposition of Co and Fe; (2) Deposition potential strongly affected chemical composition of alloys, but the effect of bath composition and deposition time was weak; (3) Magnetic property of alloys was increased by adding Ce; (4) The spherical crystal formed with the increase of annealing temperature, resulting in decrease of magnetic property.
    The Grafting of Povidone Iodine onto the Surface of Polyurethane Central Venous Catheter and the Anti-bacterial Properties Study
    CHEN Cui,;DING Kanxian; LI Zhiyun;PANG Laixing;ZHU Fangming
    2012, 51(5):  26-30. 
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    Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) was grafted onto the surface of polyurethane central venous catheter with the UV grafting technology, and then the grafted PVP was complexed with iodine (I2) in ethanol to yield povidone iodine. In order to investigate the anti-bacterial property, the surface-modified catheter was put into the nutrient broth with the same volume in which Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, and Bacillus cereus were inoculated,respectively. The results show that the surface-modified central venous catheter has the anti-bacterial effect of long-lasting, broad-spectrum and high-efficiency.
    Damage Identification in a Coupled Rod System from Measured Dynamic Responses
    Lv Zhongrong;WANG Wenjie;XU Weihua;LIU Jike
    2012, 51(5):  31-35. 
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    A new damage identification method for a coupled rod system with close and repeated natural frequencies is presented. The equation of motion for the coupled system is established from finite element analysis. The dynamic responses of the system are obtained from state-space method. And the dynamic responses of the system are used for damage detection. The local damage of the system is modeled by a reduction in the elemental tensile stiffness. The dynamic response sensitivity with respect to the damage parameter (elemental tensile stiffness) is then derived. In the inverse analysis, the local damages in the system are identified from dynamic response sensitivity-based finite element model updating method. It is found that the local damage(s) can be identified successfully from several dynamic response measurements. The effect of artificial measurement noise on the identified results is also discussed. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed method is insensitive to the measurement noise and with very good accuracy. This shows that the proposed method has the potential for real application.
    Video Retrieval Method Using Sparse Bayesian Modeling
    ZHU Li
    2012, 51(5):  36-39. 
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    Combining Compressed Sensing sparse theory with Bayesian modeling , a faster and more effective method of video information retrieval is proposed in database. Based on minimizing l 1 principle for classification and feature extraction , the method implements video retrieval requirement by utilizing Bayesian modeling to automatically estimate the regularization parameters. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method performs better retrieval performances than PCA and RP algorithm.
    An Improved Electronic Image Stabilization Method  Based on Gray Projection
    QI Hong; REN Honge;TIAN Shaoqing;HU Hong
    2012, 51(5):  40-44. 
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    In the process of research on the electronic image stabilization (EIS) based on gray projection of algorithm (GPA), a case that moving objects are present in the image is encountered. It will cause the error stability, when the images are processed with the algorithm. Through a detailed analysis to this case, an improved methods based on gray projection image stabilization algorithm was proposed. With analysis and verification, the conclusion is that this method can be well to process the image which had problems.
    Low-Field NMR Relaxation Spectrum of Wine
    LI Yan;LIU Qing;JIAN Huali;YANG Youhui
    2012, 51(5):  45-49. 
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    As low field 1H-NMR relaxation can effectively measure water, fat and alcohol content in foods, O-H in water and C-H in alcohol are the physical basic for resonance relaxation spectrum of wine. CPMG and inversion-recovery technique were applied to respectively obtain the transverse relaxation and longitudinal relaxation of the wine samples, and then the resonance relaxation spectrum was acquired by the continuous spectrum iteration as well as discrete spectrum fitting analysis. The samples were treated into certain proportions by adding deionized water or 95% edible alcohol. According to the variation of peak area ratio, the assignments of two relaxation peaks were determined. The study found that in transverse relaxation spectrum, the peak with a longer relaxation time reflected the alcohol content, and its area proportion had a positive linear correlation with alcohol concentration. In addition, random samples verified the universality of resonance relaxation spectrum and therefore, based on T2 spectrum, a new measuring technique for wine alcohol content can be built up.
    Optimizing Parallel Sparse MatrixVector Multiplication by Selected Contraction Functions
    YE Weicai
    2012, 51(5):  50-53. 
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    A new method is presented for distributing data in sparse matrix-vector multiplication by selected contraction functions. And the contraction functions are selected. The quality and the complexity of this method are theoretically ensured not to worse than those of traditional one-dimensional partitioning methods. Experimental results show that this method often produces better results than one-dimensional methods and is competitive with the best two-dimensional methods.
    The Gracefulness of Unconnected Graphs (P3∨Km)∪G及(C3∨Km)∪G
    WANG Tao;WANG Qing;LI Deming
    2012, 51(5):  54-57. 
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    The definition of k-graceful graph is extended and the new concept of A~B graceful graph is presented.One sufficient condition about determining the gracefulness of unconnected graph (P3∨Km)∪G及(C3∨Km)∪G is obtained.In the meanwhile, it is proved that for any natural numbers k,m,n,t,which are not less than one, when k≤n≤t and n+k-1≤m, the disconnected graphs (P3∨Km)∪(kj=1 Kn,t) and (C3∨Km)∪(kj=1 Kn,t) are graceful; when k=1,2, 2≤n<2m+1 the graphs  (P3∨Km)∪kj=1 Pn, (C3∨Km)∪kj=1 Pn and  (P3∨Km)∪ Pn∪St(t) are graceful; when 2≤n≤2m+1, the graphs (P3∨Km)∪ Pn∪St(t)  are graceful. Results generalize some of the known results.
    Singular Integral Operators Between the Classical #br# Type and the Product Type
    TAN Chaoqiang
    2012, 51(5):  58-62. 
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    A set of theory of singular integral operators is established, which can be seen as the middle class between the classical single-parameter singular integral operators and the multi-parameter product singular integral operators. The Lp(p>1) boundedness for these operators is obtained, where the L2 boundedness of these operators is obtained by the method of Fourier transform and integration by part and the Lp(p> 1) boundedness is obtained by the classical method of Littlewood-Paley-Stein theory.
    The Gracefulness of Two Kinds of Unconnected Graphs#br# (P2∨Kn)(0,0,r1,0,…,0,rn)∪St(m) and (P2∨Kn)(r1+a,r2,0,…,0)∪Gr
    WU Yuesheng, XU Baogen
    2012, 51(5):  63-66. 
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    For natural numbers n, m and i∈N, let Ki be an i-vertex complete graph, let Kn be the complement graph of graph Kn.A (m+1) -vertex star tree is represented by St(m). Let Gr be a graceful graph with r-edges, let Pn be a n-vertex path and let P2∨Kn be the join graph of P2  and Kn.Two kinds of unconnected graphs (P2∨Kn)(0,0,r1,0,…,0,rn)∪St(m) and (P2∨Kn)(r1+a,r2,0,…,0)∪Gr are presented. It proves that the above two kinds of graphs are graceful graphs when n≥2. 
    The Research of Extending Marching Cubes with Adaptive Methods #br# Based on Volume Warping
    XIE Zuohai;ZHAO Ying;FAN Xiaoping;ZHOU Yun
    2012, 51(5):  67-72. 
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    Marching Cubes (MC) algorithm is a typical representative for surface reconstruction method.However there are still some shortcomings about the represent accuracy of the isosurface which extracted from sparse volume. An adaptive algorithm of Marching Cubes based on volume warping is given. The proposed algorithm uses an iterative process to adaptively displaces the vertices of the cubes. After each iteration, the cubes obtain more accurate representations of the isosurface, and the difference between the implicit and the explicit representations is reduced. Region growing strategy is used to segment volume which avoid the calculation for all vertices. And parallel approach is used to optimize the proposed algorithm which promote algorithm-s efficiency. The experiment results show that this algorithm enhance the accuracy and ensure the instantaneity and interactivity of 3D reconstruction for sparse volume.
    Inversion of the Generalized Radon Transform
    CAI Yang;WANG Jinping
    2012, 51(5):  73-77. 
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    Recently, the modern imaging techniques of positron emission tomography and of single photon emission computed tomography are two of the most important tools for studying the functional characteristics of the brain,and they now play a vital role in several areas of clinical medicine, including nuclear medicine emission imaging. The basic mathematical problems associated with these techniques are the reconstruction of the Radon transform and the so-called generalized Radon transform, respectively. The singular value decomposition of the generalized Radon transform is developed by means of operator theory of function spaces, which are square integrable on Rn with known weight functions. Furthermore, the inversion formula and characteristics of its range are also obtained.
    Determining the Width of Buffer Zone for Open-Forest Nature Reserve in Hunshandak Sandland
    PENG Yu;XUE Dayuan;LIU Meizhen;LI Yougeng;NIU Shuli;JIANG Gaoming;Dilip K. Biswas
    2012, 51(5):  78-85. 
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    Many nature reserves have been established for conserving forests throughout the world. Creating a buffer zone around a core area is often suggested, but determining the width of the buffer zone is a challenge. The soil seed bank is an important indicator for the restoration capacity of a degraded vegetation ecosystem. This could be useful for designing nature reserves. According to the restoration potential and similarity index of seed banks of some sites with different distances from the core zone, the minimum width of a buffer zone can be determined. Different samples, outside of the core zone, with a different distance from the boundary of the core zone were chosen. Analysis of variance was used to analyze species, seedling and seed banks among different samples, the Sorensen-s similarity index was calculated. Based on a field survey, the buffer zone of the open-forest nature reserve in Hunshandak Sandland, China has been designed. The minimum width of buffer zone should be 300 m in lowland, 600 m in shifting sandy dunes, and 1 000~1 200 m in fixed and semi-fixed sandy dunes. Seed bank approaches will be useful for determining the buffer zone width of the forest nature reserve and can be applied and extended to the other nature reserves which aim at preserving endangered species/ecosystems and their habitats.
    Dynamics of the Main Landscape Types at Shenzhen Bay during Past Three Decades
    CHEN Baoyu;SONG Yue;ZAN Qijie;TAM Nora Fung Yee;LI Yuchun;YUE Yue;TIAN Li;YU Shixiao
    2012, 51(5):  86-92. 
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    Shenzhen Special Economic Zone (SEZ) was established as a model city in 1979 and it has become a modern industrialization urban during the past three decades. The rapid urbanization has a significant effect on the landscape, and Shenzhen Bay is a typical example. In this paper, the urbanization process in Shenzhen special zone was divided into four stages: early urbanization phase, developed urbanization phase, accelerated urbanization phase and later urbanization phase. Based on five periods of remote sensing data located at Shenzhen Bay, including MSS in 1979, and TM in 1989, 1998, 2003, 2009,respectively the dynamic characteristic of three main wetland landscape types,Gei Wei, Mangrove and Intertidal Zone in Shenzhen Bay, was analyzed with a series of techniques including landscape classification, landscape transfer and landscape index analysis.The software platforms including ERDAS IMAGINR, ARCGIS and FRAGSTATS. The results are as followed: ① There are higher diversity landscape types at Shenzhen Bay, while the area of different landscape type varied greatly. Human disturbance is a major factor in the change of landscape pattern of Shenzhen Bay, the reclamation work projects and urban construction had seriously destroyed the coastal wetlands, the coastline of the Shenzhen Bay also had extended to the shallow water. ② During the past three decades, the built-up area increased from 508.95 hm2 to 2 072.52 hm2, accordingly the largest patch area index increased from 2.94 % to 17.55 %. ③ Gei Wei suffered the greatest human disturbance, its cover area increased in the early urbanization phase. Its proportion was 7.72 % in 1989, the highest value during the past three decades. With the acceleration of urbanization, Gei Wei gradually evolved into built-up areas or other landscape types with the patch shape turn regular. In the last two phases, Gei Wei maintained at a low level of the move in or out and mainly occurred in Nanshan District where several large-scale reclamation work projects proceeded. ④ The total mangrove area decreased constantly in the first two phases of urbanization, but began to increase after 1998, with 52.65 hm2 of area to 81 hm2 in 2009. Landscape index analysis showed that the mangrove landscape did not become fragmented, but shaped larger landscape patches and the landscape connectivity increased. ⑤ There was a relatively large fluctuation and iterancy for intertidal zone in the past three decades, with the area reduced from 634.5 hm2in 1979 to 377.28 hm2 in 2009, and the fragmentation increased with the stability declined.
    Isolation and Identification of a Strain of Cellulase-Producing #br# Bacterium and Its Enzymatic Characteristics
    DENG Xianyu; ZOU Mouyong;HUANG Zhijian;YI Su
    2012, 51(5):  93-99. 
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    Using CMC plat screening and Congo red dying methods, a strain of cellulase-producing bacterium named CXB001 was isolated from the soil around rotten root of Hibiscus mutabili on the campus of Hunan University of Science and Technology. Physical and chemical test and molecular phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences showed that the strain was Bacillus velezensis. Biological charateristics revealed that the optimal growth temperature is 37 ℃, and the growth temperature ranges from 10 ℃ to 50 ℃, while the growth pH ranges from 5.0 to 11.0. The culture conditions at pH 6.0~9.0,34~40 ℃ and 1.5%~3.5% NaCl are the most suitable for enzyme production. The optimal temperature for CXB001 to produce cellulase is 50 ℃, while the optimal reaction pH is 5.0, and the strain has nice enzyme stability in 20 ℃, pH 5.0~7.0. Further experiments revealed that Co2+ could stimulate the cellulase, while Mg2+and Fe2+ inhibit the enzyme reaction.
    Comparison of Mitochondrial D-loop and Cyt b#br# Sequences of Squaliobarbus curriculus
    YANG Huirong;ZHAO Huihong;MONG Zining;LIU Li;LIN Quanzhuo
    2012, 51(5):  100-106. 
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    Sequences of mitochondrial D-loop and Cyt b gene of 24 individuals of Squaliobarbus curriculus which were sampled from four populations in Yangtze River and Pearl River were determined. Using PCR amplification and sequencing, 598bp of D-loop partial sequences and 752 bp of Cyt b partial sequences were obtained. In D-loop sequences, a total of 67 polymorphic sites defined 18 distinct haplotypes. And 34 parsim-info, 40 transition, 15 transversion and 14 insert/lacuna loci were found. The average content of A, T, C and G was 33.7%, 35.1%, 17.5% and 13.7%, respectively. In Cyt b sequences, 72 polymorphic sites and 18 haplotypes were defined, and 68 parsim-info, 60 transition, 15 transversion and no insert/lacuna loci were found. The average content of A, T, C and G was 29.3%, 26.4%, 29.8% and 14.5%, respectively. The mean haplotype diversity (H), the average number of nucleotide difference (K) and nucleotide diversity (π) for D-loop sequences were 0.9638, 16.543 5 and 0.0284, respectively. Accordingly, the values for Cyt b were 0.971 0, 31.855 1 and 0.042 6, respectively. The results suggested that both D-loop and Cyt b genes showed high genetic diversity in S. curriculus, among which the majority existed within populations. Based on population pairwise genetic distances and FST, there were obvious genetic differences between Yangtze River and Pearl River for S.curriculus Molecular phylogenetic tree and analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) also supported this result. The interpopulation genetic distances of Cyt b in the same water system were less than D-loop; while those in the different water system were more than D-loop. So for Cyt b, the more interpopulation genetic diversity was, the smaller genetic distances and FSTwere; the less interpopulation genetic diversity was, the larger genetic distances and FSTwere, which might be closely related to difference of evolutionary rate between D-loop and Cyt bgene.
    Geochemical Anomaly Identification of Stream Sediments of Wendi Sheet in the South Segment of the Qinzhou Hangzhou Metallogenic Belt
    LV Wenchao;ZHOU Yongzhang;ZHANG Yan; CHEN Qing;AN Yanfei; TAN Xin;WANG Kun
    2012, 51(5):  107-112. 
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    1∶50000 regional stream sediment geochemical data contain much information of prospecting. Thus, geochemical anomaly identification of stream sediments is very important. Based on the geological survey in the fields, the anomaly lower limit of 1∶50000 regional stream sediment geochemical data of the Wendi Sheet was determined by using statistical methods and fractal methods, then superimposed with the delineation results and mineral occurrence. The research shows that the anomaly lower limits of Au, Ag, Cu, Pb, and Zn are 1.62 ng/g, 0.12 ng/g, 22.59 μg/g, 104.00 μg/g, and 77.73 μg/g respectively by statistical methods, and 8 ng/g, 0.325 ng/g, 220 μg/g, 460 μg/g, and 2240 μg/g respectively by fractal methods. The spatial superposition of the delineation results and mineral occurrence is better by fractal methods. The fractal methods in determining the anomaly lower limit can be more effective in reducing the scope of anomalies caused by nonmineral. It can reduce the useless anomaly inspection and improve the efficiency of prospecting.
    Prediction Model based on Particle Swarm-projection Pursuit and Genetic-neural Networks
    LIU Hexiang;JIAN Maoqiu
    2012, 51(5):  113-119. 
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    Accurate prediction models are expected for many disciplines. Considering the complicated linear and nonlinear relations among forecast objects and predictive factors, the natural orthogonal complement method and the projection pursuit of particle swarm optimization algorithm are used for the linear dimensional reduction and the nonlinear dimensional reduction, respectively. With this procedure, we project the high-dimensional nonlinear data to low-dimensional subspace and construct a genetic-neural networks integrated prediction model. The model is tested in the frequency prediction of landing-typhoon in southern China and then the model accuracy is compared with the result obtained by the regular regression statistical prediction method. The mean absolute error and the mean relative error of the five-year test prediction for the typhoon frequency are 0.81 and 13%, respectively, by using the new nonlinear prediction model proposed in this paper. The prediction results by the new model have been obviously improved, comparing to regular regression statistical prediction method. The results provide a new thinking and method for the prediction model study in other disciplines.
    Analysis of Relationship between Land Surface Temperature and Energy in the Oasis-Desert Ecotone
    YAN Renhua;XIONG Heigang;ZHANG Fang
    2012, 51(5):  120-126. 
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    Based on the measured meteorological data,the change of land surface temperature under different weather conditions and the relationship between surface energy and surface temperature are discussed by using the Bowen ratio method to calculate the Splendens ground surface energy. The land surface temperature forecasting models of the oasis-desert ecotone in the southeast of the Dzungaria Basin in Xinjiang is established. The results indicate that: ① The curve of top soil (5 cm,10 cm,15 cm) temperatures,affected by different characteristics of the land surface energy under different weather conditions,shows a "S" type. Rainy days have a curve similar to that of sunny days,only with a weakened amplitude. The cloudy days manifest the feature of linear decrease. The time point of the peak of soil temperature reveals 2.5 h/5cm lagging from the surface downwards. Regardless of the weather,the soil temperature below 40 cm has almost no diurnal variation. ② The correlation coefficient between each energy component and soil temperature decreases continuously with the depth of soils,which reaches the maximum negative correlation at 20 cm. ③ The degree of influence of energy component on soil temperature is as follows: soil heat flux (G) is biggest,followed by the net radiation (Rn) and sensible heat (H),and latent heat (LE) is minimum. ④ Except for H,the correlation between energy component and the soil temperature under different weather conditions showed that: sunny> the average> cloudy> rainy. The response extent of the soil temperature to the energy change (regression coefficients) almost accords with the same rule. ⑤ Established and certified land surface temperature forecasting models suggest that the land surface temperature is affected only slightly by the hygrothermal energy factor (LE) in the arid oasisdesert ecotone.
    A Study on the Relationship between Tourism Development and #br# Economic Growth in Guangdong Province Based on Spatial Statistic Model
    LI Hangfei;TANG Chengchai;XU Shuhui;ZUO Panshi
    2012, 51(5):  127-131. 
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    Based on the theory of spatial statistical analysis,international tourism (foreign exchange) revenue,domestic tourism revenue and the gross domestic product(GDP)of 21 regions in Guangdong province during 2000-2009 were used to study the relationship between tourism development and economic growth.The results are as follows: The model of geographically weighted regression (spatial lag model), with considering the geographical weight, can explain better the relationship between tourism development and economic growth compared to the model of ordinary least squares. Both the domestic tourism and inbound tourism have significant positive effect on the economic growth of Guangdong province,but inbound tourism plays a more significant role in promoting economic growth of Guangdong Province. The effect of the inbound tourism on economic growth of Guangdong province is getting more and more stronger. Finally,the cause and advice on the development of domestic tourism and inbound tourism in Guangdong province are analyzed
    Delay Induced Error Analysis for the Pendulum based Mechanical Spectra Instrument in the Forced Vibration Mode
    YANG Yuebin; ZUO Wenlong;BAO Yanxiang; LIU Shuyu; LI Longfei;XIONG Xiaomin
    2012, 51(5):  132-136. 
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    The systematical error of the pendulum-based mechanical spectra instrument is analyzed in the forced vibration mode,it is found that the error mainly originates from both mechanical and circular delays enlarging the phase lag for the strain behind the stress. Furthermore, a scheme to measure these systematic delays and correct the phase lag is proposed, which greatly improves the precision for both the internal friction of solid and the viscosity of liquid.