Variability of the low-frequency climate change is the principle driver for the annual and interannual streamflow changes. The influences of lowfrequency climate indices such as El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), on annual mean discharge (Qann) and annual peak discharge (Qmax) of the Pearl River basin have been quantitatively analyzed. The results show that: ① Qann and Qmax were significantly affected by different climate indices in different regions with distinctly different spatial patterns in terms of correlation degrees and sensitivity and also the trends of impact strength. ENSO and IOD at the same year exerted a persistent significant impact on the Qann at the regions covering most of the West River basin, and the strength of the correlation increased significantly, which can be taken as the predictor for Qann. For the same reason, PDO at the same year can be taken as the predictor for Qann in the eastern parts of the Pearl River basin and the North River basin, and NAO, IOD a year earlier and NAO at the same year can be taken as the predictor for Qmax in the middle Pearl River basin; ② As for the entire Pearl River basin, negativephase ENSO, NAO and PDO tend to cause Qann at lower levels with an increasing risk of droughts. However, positivephase ENSO, IOD and negative phase NAO and PDO tend to cause Qmax at higher levels with an increasing risk of extreme floods; ③ Qmax was more sensitive to variability of atmospheric circulation than Qann. Qann varied between 03% and 24%, while Qmax varied between 0.5% and 31% per unit index change. The NAO and IOD both at the same year and a year earlier show a higher sensitivity in most area of the Pearl River basin, but the sensitivity difference between Qann and Qmax was significant, the latter had an area ratio of 56%, 59%, 71% and 36% sensitivity higher than the former.