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    25 September 2017, Volume 56 Issue 5
    Progresses in environmental microbiome diversity and function research
    WU Bo;FENG Kai; ZHI Xiaoyang;HE Qiang;XU Meiying;DENG Ye;XIAO Fanshu;WANG Shanquan;YU Ling;LU Qihong;LIAN Yingli;LUO Lijuan;YUAN Ke;CHEN Baowei;YAN Qingyun;QIU Rongliang;LUAN Tiangang;HE Zhili
    2017, 56(5):  1-11. 
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    Currently developed sequencing and other high throughput technologies enable us to explore the role of microorganisms in the environment. Here environmental microbiome is defined as the collection of microbial genomes in a particular environment, and the environmental microbiome research (or environmental microbiomics) aims to understand the biodiversity, composition, structure, function, interaction, evolution and dynamics of microbial communities as well as their linkages with environmental drivers and ecosystem functioning. This review is focused on environmental microbiomes from soil, water and air. Firstly, the current advanced sequencing technologies and associated tools for environmental microbiome data analysis are reviewed, then the current research progress in environmental microbiomes were summarized with foci on addressing key scientific questions in microbial ecology and environmental science. This review proposes key scientific questions, and highlights the importance of our understanding of microbial functions and underlying mechanisms in future environmental microbiome studies.

    A comparison of mangrove community distribution and landscape pattern between Futian and Maipo Nature Reserve at Shenzhen Bay
    LI Zhen;LI Yu;ZAN Qijie;YU Shixiao
    2017, 56(5):  12-19. 
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    Before the reform and opening up, the species composition and landscape pattern at Futian Nature Reserve were similar to Maipo Nature Reserve. A rapid urbanization at Shenzhen city during the past 30 years has led to the landscape fragmentation process at Futian mangrove wetland, which resulted in a divergence of mangrove communities or landscape pattern on both coasts. In this study, based on analysis of high resolution WorldView-2 image, we classified the present pattern of communities and landscape, then qualified the fragmentation degree between both sides. The overall accuracy of mangrove community classification was 0.902, and the Kappa coefficient was 0.859. Our results also indicated: ① The mangrove at Maipo nature reserve covers about 346 hm2 while it is about 89 hm2 at Futian. Kandelia candel community is the leading dominant landscape type at Shenzhen Bay, and Avicennia marina community and Aegiceras corniculatum community are dominant communities; ②The landscape fragmentation degree at Futian Reserve is higher than that at Maipo Reserve. In particular, the pattern of both local communities Avicennia marina community and Kandelia candel community fragmented seriously; ③ The landscape patch shape of Futian Reserve is square mostly, which indicated an effect of anthropogenic factor. On the contrary, the pattern at Maipo Reserve showed mainly an irregular distribution, indicated an effect of natural factor.

    Research progress of green metallurgical nickel based on phytomining
    ZHANG Xin;LV Xiangying;LIU Wenshen;LIU Chang;YUAN Ming;QIU Rongliang
    2017, 56(5):  20-29. 
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    Based on the concept of phytomining, the nickel hyperaccumulator could be employed to absorb nickel from the low grade laterite nickel ore or nickel-polluted soil and transport nickel to the aerial parts of the plant, and the harvested nickel hyperaccumulators are considered as secondary nickel-rich resources. Then nickel-rich bio-ore with nickel concentration roughly 20% can be obtained via incineration. By reviewing the mechanism of nickel-rich hyperaccumulators to transport nickel transport, the agronomic control of planting nickel-rich hyperaccumulators, and the existing methods of producing pure nickel, lewis acid catalyst , nickel sulfate hexahydrate and nickel nano-materials from harvested nickel hyperaccumulators or nickel-rich bio-ore, this paper proposes the prospects of the possible “Green Metallurgical Nickel” research trend. It is expected to use nickel hyperaccumulator to repair nickel environmental pollution, to reduce nickel hazards to humans and other organisms and develop a new type of “green nickel-smelting” technologies to alleviate the shortage of Chinese nickel resources.

    On the solvability of the cubic Diophantine equation x3+1=2p1p2Qy2
    YANG Hai; HOU Jing;FU Ruiqin
    2017, 56(5):  30-33. 
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    Let p1,p2 be odd primes satisfy p1≡p2≡1(mod 6) and (p1/p2)=-1, where (p1/p2) is the Legendre symbol. Let Q be a positive integer such that Q is square free, and it has at least two distinct prime divisors and every prime divisor q of Q satisfies q≡5(mod 6). Using some elementary number theory methods, it is proven that if p1≡1(mod 8),p2≡5(mod 8) and Q≡1(mod 4), then the equation x3+1=2p1p2Qy2 has no positive integer solutions (x,y).

    Computational universality of homogeneous spiking neural P systems working in sequential mode induced by minimum spike number
    LI Li;JIANG Keqin
    2017, 56(5):  34-40. 
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    Spiking neural P system is proposed based on the biological phenomenon that the neurons in the neural network are processed by synapses. It has good performance and potential application value. Spiking neural P system working in sequential mode induced by minimum spike number is a special kind of spiking neural computational models. In order to verify the universality of the homogeneous system, weighted synapses are introduced, and the homogeneous spiking neural P systems working in sequential mode induced by minimum spike number are constructed. It is proved that such systems are universal as both generative and acceptive devices by using automata theory, formal language and register machines.

    Existence of extremal solutions for the p-Laplacian integro-differential equation on infinite intervals
    FANG Yuping;WANG Ying
    2017, 56(5):  41-50. 
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    The integro-differential equation with p-Laplacian operator is widely used in applied mechanics, astrophysics and classical electrology. The boundary value problem of nonlinear differential equations is an important branch of differential equations. Therefore, it is a great theoretical and practical significance to study the boundary value problems of p-Laplacian integro-differential equations. A class of p-Laplacian integro-differential equations with complex boundary conditions on infinite interval is systematically studied. By using the monotone iterative technique, the existence of extremal solutions as well as iterative schemes under the suitable conditions is established. At last, an example is given to demonstrate the use of the main result.

    Multiplicity and uniqueness of positive solutions to a diffusive food-chain model
    LI Haixia
    2017, 56(5):  51-59. 
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    A food-chain system with Crowley-Martin functional response is studied. By making use of the global bifurcation theory and degree theory, the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions are discussed and the basic shape of bifurcation curve of positive solutions is obtained. Moreover, the conditions of the uniqueness and stability of  positive solutions are given by means of perturbation theory. It turns out that there exists a unique asymptotically stable positive solution under certain conditions when d is sufficiently large.

    A class of nonlinear dynamic system of human groups for HIV transmission
    FENG Yihu; CHEN Xiangfeng;MO Jiaqi
    2017, 56(5):  60-63. 
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    A class of dynamic system for the human groups in epidemic contagion region (HIV) transmission is studied. Transmission mode of the human groups in epidemic contagion region is described. Firstly, using the generalized functional variational iteration method for a class of AIDS transmission dynamic system, the approximate iteration sequence is solved. Its uniformly convergent is illustrated. And from an example, any times approximate solutions are obtained. Finally, the quantity and quality of the solution for HIV transmission dynamic system are illustrated and forecasted.

    A compression scheme on encrypted grey images exploiting the statistic model and rate distorting optimization
    FENG Yang;WANG Chuntao
    2017, 56(5):  64-72. 
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    How to compress encrypted data effectively and reconstruct it in a high quality way is a challenging research problem in the cloud computing environment. The challenge mainly comes from the encryption by cloud users, which masks statistical characteristics of cover data and thus makes the compression of encrypted data in the cloud side unable to fully exploit the statistical characteristics in a traditional way. Based on the fitness evaluation of statistical models in characterizing wavelet coefficients, a new compression scheme is proposed on encrypted grey images, which leverages the statistic model and rate distortion optimization. The coarsest subband and the other wavelet subbands generated through lifting wavelet decomposition of grey image are encrypted by stream and permutation ciphers, respectively. They are then compressed in lossless and lossy ways, respectively. The receiver finally performs the inverse operations to reconstruct the original image. As sufficient tests show that the Cauchy distribution can well characterize wavelet coefficients, the Cauchy distribution is adopt to represent wavelet subbands. Via this statistical model, the ratedistortion theory is further used to derive optimal quantization steps for lossy compression. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm can obtain better compressing efficiency and reconstruction quality. Also, it is significantly better than other permutationbased prior arts, and it is comparable to or even better than the conventional JPEG compression algorithm.

    Amide metabolites of the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. ZZF08 from the South China Sea
    TAO Yiwen;LING Huiping;ZHANG Jianye;SHE Zhigang;LIN Yongcheng
    2017, 56(5):  73-78. 
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    The amide metabolites ofPhomopsis sp. ZZF08 from the South China Sea were isolated and purified by chromatography. Their structures were determined by MS, NMR, X-ray diffraction data and comparison with the literature data. Cytotoxicity in vitro was performed by tetrazolium (MTT) assay. Twelve amide compounds were isolated, which were viridicatol (1), cytochalasin H (2), cytochalasin IV (3), glucosylceramide (4), ceramide (5), allantoin (6), thymine (7), pyridine (8), cyclo-(Leu-Gly) (9), cyclo- (Leu Ala) (10), cyclo- (Phe Gly) (11), and cyclo- (Phe-Ala) (12). Compounds 1,2,3,4 and 5 were isolated firstly from Phomopsis sp. collected from the mangrove bark of the Zhanjiang. In our cytotoxicity assays, compounds 2 and 3 exhibited strong cytotoxicity toward KB cells and KBv200 cells.

    Preparation of PW11Fe/CS/CNTs/C composite film electrode and application in H2O2 electrochemical sensor
    WANG Xin;ZHANG Jinming;JIANG Xiaowei;HAN Leiyun;WANG Lili;HUANG Yanxia;YOU Chenghang;HUA Yingjie;WANG Chongtai
    2017, 56(5):  79-84. 
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    A composite film electrode PW11Fe/CS/CNTs/C was prepared by the integration of adsorption method and solgel method using chitosan as both an adsorbent and film-forming agent, Keggin type Fe(Ⅲ) substituted heteropolyanion PW11O39Fe(Ⅲ)(H2O)4-(PW11Fe) as an electrocatalyst, carbon nano tubes (CNTs) as a conductivity improver in this paper. The electrochemical behavior and its influence factors of the asprepared electrode were investigated by using the electrochemical method. The electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction and the possibility also used to be an electrochemical sensor detecting H2O2 were evaluated. The results showed that the PW11Fe/CS/CNTs/C composite film electrode possessed a similar electrochemical behavior with PW11Fe and a high electrocatalytic activity towards H2O2 reduction. For detecting H2O2 reduction. Applied to detect H2O2, the electrode exhibits a high sensitivity of 0.30 mA·cm-2·(μmol/L)-1 and a detection limit of 7.3 μmol/L (S/N=3).

    Optical isomerism mechanism of methionine molecule in water based on amino group as proton transfer bridge
    LIU Yingjie;WANG Zuocheng;YAN Hongyan;YANG Xiaocui;TONG Hua
    2017, 56(5):  85-92. 
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    The optical isomerism reaction of two kinds of the most stable configurations of methionine molecules with amino group as proton transfer bridge were explored by using the B3LYP method of density functional theory and the MP2 method of perturbation theory. The study of reaction process showed that optical isomerism of configuration 1 goes through 2 elementary reactions and configuration 2 goes through 5 elementary reactions. Calculations of potential energy surface pointed out that the stepdetermining of configuration 1 is first elementary reaction and configuration 2 is second elementary reaction. The stepdetermining energy barriers are 124.4 and 128.7 kJ·mol-1in gaseous water environment and they are 104.91 and 105.2 kJ·mol-1 in liquid water environment , respectively, far lower than the energy barriers of 264.2 and 266.1 kJ·mol-1 in the bare environment. The apparent activation energies are 140.8 and 155.0 kJ·mol-1 in gaseous water environment and they are 97.9 and 98.9 kJ·mol-1 in liquid water environment, respectively. The results showed that water molecules and water solvents have good catalytic effects on the optical isomerism of methionine molecule the in proton transfer process. The methionine can be damaged in water environment. The optical isomerism of methionine molecule can be slowly realized in liquid water environment.

    The boundary layer height variation and influence factors over arid and semiarid areas of East Asia and North Africa
    ZHAO Yanru, MAO Wenqian, ZHANG Kequan, NIU Xiaoying, LI Jiayun, ZHANG Wenyu
    2017, 56(5):  93-100. 
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    Based on the ECMWF's first atmospheric reanalysis data of the 20th Century, ERA-20C , the variation of the boundary-layer height (BLH) and its relationship with the meteorological factors over arid and semiarid areas of East Asia and North Africa spanning 1900-2010 were analyzed. The BLHs in the two areas showed an opposite trend in the overall, interannual and interdecadal variation. The BLH of East Asia overall showed a rising trend with a climate tendency rate of 1.87 m/10a, while the BLH of North Africa showed a decreasing trend with a climate tendency rate of -2.13 m/10a. In the 11 decades, there were 8 decades having opposite trend. The BLH was related to the change of land air temperature gradient, relative humidity and wind speed. The change of relative humidity had a good correlation with the BLH, with significant negative correlation coefficients of -0.778 4 and -0.618 4, respectively, in East Asia and North Africa.

    Numerical analysis on circulation features and structure of offshore intensified typhoon Rammasun(1409)
    LIN Xiaoxia;WANG Shuofu;FENG Yerong
    2017, 56(5):  101-111. 
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    The GRAPES (Global/Regional Assimilation and PrEdiction system) model was used to study the rapid intensification of Super Typhoon Rammasun (1409) offshore China in this paper. On the basis of successful simulation of the intensity change and track, the model output was further analyzed to determine the large-scale environmental condition of Typhoon Rammasun and the mechanism for its rapid intensity change. The results show that the favorable background field with low-level convergence and high-level divergence occurred during the rapid intensification, abundant water vapor transport at lower-levels provided favorable energy for Typhoon, which was mainly transported by the southeastern boundary. Besides, the weak vertical wind shear lower than 6 m/s was in favor of gathering the latent heat of condensation and maintaining the “warm heart” structure, and there was a time lag of about 24 hours between the vertical wind shear reduced and Typhoon's increased sharply. Analyses on the structure showed that the dynamic and energetic fields were highly asymmetric during its strengthening stage but became structurally symmetric during its mature stage. Convection was stronger in the southeast of the typhoon than in the northwest during its strengthening stage. The range of eyewall was small in the low-level but extended in the high-level. Positive vorticity increased in the eye of the typhoon and expanded to the mid and upper-troposphere. Besides, the tangential-wind speeds increased with the increasing of typhoon intensity, especially during the process of rapid intensification. Furthermore, there was evidently warm-core structure in the lower and mid-upper level which highly concentrated to the center of Rammasun, and the positive temperature anomaly of the typhoon center exceeded 11 ℃, while the warm-core extending towards to lower and higher layer. All above happened during the rapid intensification were the main reasons of the intensification of Rammasun.

    Forms and distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus in Feilaixia Reservoir
    XIE Linhuan;JIANG Tao; LI Rui;TANG Changyuan;CHEN Jianyao;CAO Yingjie;LIU Xiaobo;ZENG Hongping
    2017, 56(5):  112-118. 
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    Samples collected from 9 sites in the Feilaixia Reservoir in June and December of 2015 are used to analyze the forms and distribution of nitrogen and phosphorus by measuring their concentrations and combining Spearman correlation test results and N/P ratio. The results show that: ① NO-3-N, PP and DP are the main forms. ② TN concentrations during wet season are lower than those during dry season, while TP concentrations are higher during the wet season. The nitrogen concentration is mainly influenced by domestic sewage and phosphorus is influenced by nonpoint source pollution. ③ Nitrogen and phosphorus may be originated from the same sources during wet season. ④ The TN flux in wet season in the Wengjiang River is 1 128.4 g/s, which is the highest among the three main rivers in the Feilaixia reservoir. The TN flux of the Beijiang River is 1 036.0 g/s, which is the highest in dry season. TP fluxes of the Beijiang River are the highest, with 85.4 and 70.3 g/s in wet and dry season, respectively. ⑤ The ratios of DIN/TP range from 4.0 to 47.1, suggesting that the Feilaixia reservoir is in the state of phosphorus limitation.

    Hydrological time series forecasting based on WD-RSPA model——A case study of Makou Station and Shenzhen Station
    LIU Zufa;TAN Mingxin;ZHA Xini;ZHUO Wenshan;ZHOU Yueying;CHEN Jichen;YAO Hanmei
    2017, 56(5):  119-126. 
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    The traditional hydrological time series prediction models cannot get good prediction accuracy and they generally do not consider the actual noise. A new kind of hydrological forecasting model (Wavelet De-noise and Rank Set Pair Analysis forecasting model, WD-RSPA forecasting model) was built based on wavelet de-noising and set pair analysis, and was applied to predict the annual runoff of Makou Station and the annual precipitation of Shenzhen Station. The results show that when the dimension T=4, the prediction error of Makou Station with coif3RSPA model is 11.97%; and when T=6, the prediction error of Shenzhen Station with db5-RSPA model is 17.73%. Compared to the results predicted by AR(1) model and RSPA model, the results of WD-RSPA model are closer to the observed data, indicating that it is a practicable method to predict the hydrological time series.

    MODIS data-based study of the spatial distribution of land surface temperature in Bosten lake basin area
    REYILAI Kadeer;YUSUfUJIANG Rusuli;ADILAI Wufu;AIZEZITIYUEMAIER Maimaiti, JIANG Hong
    2017, 56(5):  127-138. 
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    In order to discriminate the response of the land surface temperature (LST) to underlying surface of Bosten lake watershed area, the land surface temperatures are calculated by MODIS split window algorithm and validated using observed metrological data. The results show that:① MODIS LST product is applicable for the analysis of spatio-temporal distribution characteristics of LST in Bosten Lake watershed area. ② The distribution of land surface temperatures is very different in different seasons and different regions. The land surface temperature varies between -17.02 ℃ and 31.52 ℃ in spring, between -9.99 ℃ and 5604 ℃ in summer, between -16.45 ℃ and 37.31 ℃ in autumn, and between -32.42 ℃ and 10.79 ℃ in winter. ③ Spatial distribution of land surface temperature is related to land use types, which have affected the land surface temperature distribution in the study area. The highest LST is distributed in the desert/sandy land and the lowest LST distributed in glaciers and meadow area. The spatiotemporal distribution of LST is closely related to LUCC in the inland lake basins, and the green vegetation has the function of regulating climate and temperature in the oasis region, which is extremely vulnerable to the ecological environment of the arid region.

    Flow separation of the pressure driven power-law flow in Y-shaped microchannel
    GUO Songcan,ZHU Qingyong,CHEN Yaoqin
    2017, 56(5):  139-148. 
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    The pressure driven flow of power-law fluids in Y-shape microchannel is calculated by the fourth-order compact difference scheme. The governing equations are established by the complete Poisson-Boltzmann equation, modified Cauchy momentum equation and continuity equation. The distribution of the electric double layer potential, the pressure, the apparent viscosity and the velocity profiles of different parameters are obtained by the simulation. The results of the simulation are discussed. Furthermore, the effects of the electric double layer on the velocity profile were investigated. The results show that with the decrease of the powerlaw index, the velocity peak of the flow is larger in the microchannel, the effects of the electric double layer are more obvious. Compared the shear thickening and Newtonian fluids, the shear thinning fluids are much more sensitive to the other parameters. The recirculation generating conditions are studied. The recirculation generating critical pressure decrease with enlarging the branching angle or decreasing the power-law index. The pressure, the power-law index and the branching angle have significant influence on the flow separation when fixing the other parameters. Increasing the pressure, decreasing the power-law index or enlarging the branching angle also can extend the region of the flow separation.

    Multiple phases tracking and compensation for LOS MIMO systems
    LUO Liping;ZHOU Jingrong;CHEN Haiqiang
    2017, 56(5):  149-155. 
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    Aiming at the multiple phase noises in distributed transmitter and receiver antennas of LOS MIMO systems, a tracking and compensation algorithm for multiple phases based on LMS criterion and linear equalization is proposed. The symbol error rate (SER) performance is analyzed by simulations under various oscillator configurations, phase noise bandwidth, modulation orders and step sizes. Then, compared with the existed algorithm based on phaselocked loop (PLL), the simulation results show that the SER performance of the LMS algorithm is superior to the PLL algorithm. The proposed LMS algorithm can reduce the SER of LOS MIMO systems more efficiently, thus is more practicable than the PLL algorithm.

    The thermoluminesence spectra of CaSO4:RE(Eu,Dy,Tm),Mn phosphors
    TANG Qiang;GUO Jingyuan;GAO Li;TANG Huaming;ZHANG Chunxiang
    2017, 56(5):  156-160. 
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    The CaSO4:RE(Eu,Dy,Tm),Mn and CaSO4:RE,Mn phosphors have been prepared by doping the rare earth ions (Eu,Dy,Tm) and Mn into CaSO4. The roles of RE and Mn ions dopants and their interactions in the phosphors have been studied by the methods of thermoluminesence (TL) 3D spectra. The results indicated that the dopants not only are luminescence centers, but also influence the distribution of traps. After co-doped with Mn2+, the higher glow peaks(>150 ℃) of rare earth ions are not intensified, on the contrary, the lower temperature peaks are intensified obviously, and the temperature of peaks are get close to the glow peak of Mn2+in CaSO4:RE,Mn phosphors. It is confirmed that the energy transfers from Mn2+ to the RE ions happened. The experiments also showed that the Mn2+will remarkably intensified the luminescence of Eu2+, but lightly intensified the luminescence of Dy3+ or Tm3+.